Model base classes#

BaseModel class#

The BaseModel implements basic simulation infrastructure like a shared logger, RNG, config file reading, signal handling and abstract methods that provide a blue print for model implementation.

Relevant properties#



Random Number Generator#

Via rng(), the model’s own random number generator can be accessed. Being seeded (with the seed parameter), this ensures that a simulation is reproducible.


During setup (_setup_rng()), the system’s and numpy’s default RNGs are also seeded (via random.seed() and numpy.random.seed(), respectively). This is done to ensure that simulations are deterministic even if not using the model’s own RNG instance, which is not always possible.

To not set those seeds in a simulation, set the seed_numpy_rng and seed_system_rng parameters to False:

  seed: 123
  seed_numpy_rng: false   # if true: will use (seed + 1 = 124)
  seed_system_rng: false  # if true: will use (seed + 2 = 125)

StepwiseModel class#

The StepwiseModel specializes the BaseModel for models that abstract model iteration to step-wise integration with integer time steps.

An example for a model based on StepwiseModel can be found in the utopya demo project:

Example implementation#

The following is the full implementation of ExtendedModel, one of the utopya demo models. It inherits from StepwiseModel and implements the following methods:

  • setup: Reads configuration entries and sets up output datasets

  • perform_step: Iterates the state

  • monitor: Provides monitoring information to utopya

  • write_data: Writes data

"""This module implements the actual model, making use of the base model class
implemented in :py:class:`~utopya_backend.model.step.StepwiseModel`.

from typing import Tuple

import numpy as np

from utopya_backend import StepwiseModel

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

class ExtendedModel(StepwiseModel):
    """The actual model implementation"""

    def setup(
        distribution_params: dict,
        state_size: int,
        grid_shape: Tuple[int, int],
        dataset_kwargs: dict = None,
        """Sets up the model: stores parameters, sets up the model's internal
        state, and creates datasets for storing them.""""Setting up state vector and CA ...")

        self._distribution_params = distribution_params

        # Setup state as random values in [0, 1)
        self._state = self.rng.uniform(
            **self._distribution_params, size=(state_size,)
        self._ca = np.zeros(grid_shape, dtype=int)

        # .. Dataset setup ....................................................
        # Setup chunked datasets to store the state data in and add labelling
        # attributes that are interpreted by dantro to determine dimension
        # names and coordinate labels"Setting up datasets ...")

        self._dsets = dict()

        # The full state vector over time
        self._dsets["state"] = self.create_ts_dset(

        # The mean state over time
        self._dsets["mean_state"] = self.create_ts_dset(

        # A 2D grid, written as flattened array
        # This needs additional attributes to be reshapeable by dantro.
        self._dsets["ca"] = self.create_ts_dset(
        self._dsets["ca"].attrs["content"] = "grid"
        self._dsets["ca"].attrs["grid_shape"] = self._ca.shape
        self._dsets["ca"].attrs["grid_structure"] = "square"
        self._dsets["ca"].attrs["index_order"] = "C"  # numpy default
        self._dsets["ca"].attrs["space_extent"] = self._ca.shape

        self.log.debug("Created datasets: %s", ", ".join(self._dsets))

    def perform_step(self):
        """Performs the model's iteration:

        #. Adds uniformly random integers to the state vector.
        #. Increments the state of a random position on the CA.
        self._state += self.rng.uniform(
            **self._distribution_params, size=(self._state.size,)

        rand_midx = np.unravel_index(
            self.rng.integers(0, self._ca.size), self._ca.shape
        self._ca[rand_midx] += 1

    def monitor(self, monitor_info: dict):
        """Provides information about the current state of the model to the
        monitor, which is then emitted to the frontend."""
        monitor_info["state_mean"] = self._state.mean()
        monitor_info["ca_max"] = self._ca.max()

        return monitor_info

    def write_data(self):
        """Write the current state of the model into corresponding datasets.

        In the case of HDF5 data writing that is used here, this requires to
        extend the dataset size prior to writing; this way, the newly written
        data is always in the last row of the dataset.
        for ds in self._dsets.values():
            ds.resize(ds.shape[0] + 1, axis=0)

        self._dsets["mean_state"][-1] = self._state.mean()
        self._dsets["state"][-1, :] = self._state
        self._dsets["ca"][-1, :] = self._ca.flat

See the demo directory in the repository for the context in which this model is implemented. Alternatively, have a look at the Demo project and models page.